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The system where data is collected and transmitted between two or many interrelated devices over the internet without human to human or human to machine interaction is known as Internet of Things.

There are various applications of IoT such as transformation of smart cities, smart homes, pollution control, smart transportations, Energy Consumption, Healthcare and medicines, Security and Surveillance, Agriculture automation, and many more. Self- driven cars and trucks use this technology to drive safely in high traffic and adverse weather conditions. The Artificial Intelligence cameras, motion sensors and onboard computers are connected together to collect and transmit data. To prevent accidents and traffic jams, roadways are equipped with AI cameras, sensors and parking meters. The Artificial Intelligence camera captures pictures and collects data about traffic and weather conditions, sensors in traffic lights help drivers to see the signals correctly by self adjusting the brightness of traffic light. These interconnected devices transfer data through the internet and help drivers to navigate through apps or get parking slots in an area. Another important sector where IOT has shown its importance is Smart Health Sensing System (SHSS). In SHSS the smart devices are used to track the health of patients, hence without any delays proper treatment can save the patients life. 

IoT has a huge potential to benefit various sectors. In America IoT has significantly transformed the healthcare system, and is also responsible for smart supply chain projects. European cities are implementing IoT to transform into smart cities.

Smart Homes and smart cities are the most trending applications of IoT. IoT enabled devices in home can regulate room temperature, home appliances, audio devices, TV, security devices to give extra comfort, safe and secure lifestyle. This can also help to save electricity and reduce the electricity bill. The reach of IoT is very vast in all domains. Energy consumption is the most important aspect to look into, IoT can aid in development of Smart Energy Control System.

The architecture of IoT has five layers to describe its activity. These are-

  1. Perception layer
  2. Network layer
  3. Middleware layer
  4. Application layer
  5. Business layer

The perception layer which has physical devices in it like sensors, barcode, chips and other objects connected to the internet. The physical devices fetch information and pass it to the network layer; the network layer acts as a transmission medium to pass the information to the information processing system by using internet, wifi or bluetooth. The received information is then processed in the middleware layer to give a result to make a decision. This result is used by the application layer for global device management. At last the monitoring of the IoT system is done by the business layer. It depicts the data and statistics received from the application layer and uses it for future. It also has many useful blocks that help in working of IoT, the IoT activities like sensing mechanism, authentication and identification, control and management are all performed in these blocks.

Apart from these applications, there are some challenges faced to implement IoT successfully. Increased scalability, modularity, interoperability and openness are the major challenges to implement IoT architecture. The modern IoT architecture should be able to store huge amounts of data, add automation and intelligence to the IoT devices and also aid the smooth functioning of the system. Cloud and Fog computing are the two IoT system architectures. Another challenge of the IoT system is, as it deals with huge amounts of data and data transfer there is a risk of cyber threats and attacks, the hackers can easily access the data hence proper security systems should be embedded in the IoT architecture. 

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